The Kazakh economy accounts for more than 70% of all the investment attracted in Central Asia. Once these initial projects have spawned viable commercial products, the venture company plans to reinvest the profits in new projects. In the east, the pastoral cultures interacted with the great sedentary societies of China, often in strongly interdependent ways that frequently encouraged the emergence of … The vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the region were known as Chach. Each of the selected projects is entitled to funding of US$3–90 million and is implemented within a public–private partnership. He can be reached at 7-1a: Historical cultures of West and Central Asia reside in a vast area that includes the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, Anatolia, Greater Iran, Central Asia, Inner Asia, and Himalayan Asia. Central and Inner Asia Buddhist Celestial Musician from Central Asia The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, houses a panel, originally part of a much larger hanging, that is made of cotton and is embroidered in silk and gold thread with the representation of a female celestial musician from the Buddhist pantheon. A larger area also including Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Tibet, western China, Afghanistan and parts of Siberia, Iran and Pakistan. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Key: P’00 – Population, AD 2000 P’25 – Population, AD2025 C’00 – Christianity, AD 2000 (followed by the percentage of the overall population) C’25 – Christianity, AD2025 projection, World Christian Database (followed by percentage of overall population) 75-00 – Growth rate. Inner Asian and Altaic Studies. The Ustyurt Plateau is between the Aral and Caspian Seas. In early times Buddhism spread north and throughout much of history warrior kings and tribes would move southeast to establish their rule in northern India. The conference, the first of its kind in the Region, and will focus on key topics including: Providing assistance for … The ultimate aim is to emulate the Asian Tigers by becoming the local equivalent, Central Asian snow leopards. [44], In terms of the economic influence of big powers, China is viewed as one of the key economic players in Central Asia, especially after Beijing launched its grand development strategy known as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013. [43], Five Kazakh patents were registered at the US Patent and Trademark Office between 2008 and 2013, compared to three for Uzbek inventors and none at all for the other three Central Asian republics, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. [43], Kazakhstan is Central Asia's main trader in high-tech products. Food prices rose two years in a row and, in 2012, production at the major Kumtor gold mine fell by 60% after the site was perturbed by geological movements. Oil and natural gas are two major resources contained within the region. It is also colloquially … Istanbul, 1990. [39] The first world title competition was played in 2017 and won by Kazakhstan.[40]. Strategic pipelines carrying oil to distant ports have also been built across the countries. Caravans from China usually went along the north or south side of the Tarim basin and joined at Kashgar before crossing the mountains northwest to Ferghana or southwest to Bactria. : Blackwell Publishers, 1998 47. [43], Kazakhstan is also one of the three founding members of the Eurasian Economic Union in 2014, along with Belarus and the Russian Federation. Today all of the countries of Central Asia are majority-Muslim countries. Kazakhstan accounted for 77.7% of the total FDI directed to the region. The technopark will house research on alternative energy sources (sun, wind) and the assimilation of nanotechnologies. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that also includes the Caspian Sea. Any internal unity that was achieved was most probably due to the influence of the Silk Road, which traveled along Central Asia. See more ideas about central asia, asia, pakistan culture. INNER ASIA A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia. In Uzbekistan, more than 10 institutions of the Academy of Sciences have been reorganized, following the issuance of a decree by the Cabinet of Ministers in February 2012. [43], Public policies pursued by Central Asian governments focus on buffering the political and economic spheres from external shocks. It overlaps with some definitions of Central Asia, mostly the historical ones, but certain regions of Inner Asia (such as Northeast China) are not considered a part of Central Asia by any of its definitions. 1: Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire 1st edition by Christian, David (1998) Paperback on Dushanbe means "Monday" in, The capital and largest city of Turkmenistan. Fluctuating global demand for cotton, aluminium and other metals (except gold) in recent years has hit Tajikistan hardest, since aluminium and raw cotton are its chief exports − the Tajik Aluminium Company is the country's primary industrial asset. Like all forms of culture, Asian religions may be considered geographically in terms of both their places of origin and their distribution. The largest biome in Central Asia is the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. ", C.E. Cricket is the most popular sport in Afghanistan. It involves a consortium of partner institutions from Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Poland, Portugal, Tajikistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan. Central Asia is politically fragmented, with divisions between tribes and between different political ideologies. … Korean is spoken by the Koryo-saram minority, mainly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.[53]. ISBN-10: 0631208143 ISBN-13: 9780631208143 Pub. Its distance from the sea forced trade to go overland through the famous Silk Road routes. IncoNet CA focuses on twinning research facilities in Central Asia and Europe. Nomadic migrations usually moved from Mongolia through Dzungaria before turning southwest to conquer the settled lands or continuing west toward Europe. [66], The region, along with Russia, is also part of "the great pivot" as per the Heartland Theory of Halford Mackinder, which says that the power which controls Central Asia—richly endowed with natural resources—shall ultimately be the "empire of the world".[67]. Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. Copyright © Lausanne World Pulse Archives, War, reconstruction, heavy restrictions/persecution, drugs, Persecution, oppression, nuclear politics, Sporatic restrictions, enormous resources, ecological disasters, End to civil war, political reconstruction, religious repression, Political repression, economic mismanagement, religious restrictions. The UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, northern and central Pakistan, northern India, western China, Mongolia and the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Notable Kazakh competitors include cyclists Alexander Vinokourov and Andrey Kashechkin, boxer Vassiliy Jirov and Gennady Golovkin, runner Olga Shishigina, decathlete Dmitriy Karpov, gymnast Aliya Yussupova, judoka Askhat Zhitkeyev and Maxim Rakov, skier Vladimir Smirnov, weightlifter Ilya Ilyin, and figure skaters Denis Ten and Elizabet Tursynbaeva. Notable Uzbekistani competitors include cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, boxer Ruslan Chagaev, canoer Michael Kolganov, gymnast Oksana Chusovitina, tennis player Denis Istomin, chess player Rustam Kasimdzhanov, and figure skater Misha Ge. The governments are generally anti-Christian. Iran is in a much better place to manage its oil wealth, which is not likely to run out as quickly as the northern states. Ashgabat is a relatively young city, growing out of a village of the same name established by, The nation's fifth-largest city and the capital of the, The second largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of, The capital and largest city of Uzbekistan. The growth in exports was more gradual – from US$2.3 billion to US$3.1 billion – and dominated by chemical products (other than pharmaceuticals), which represented two-thirds of exports in 2008 (US$1.5 billion) and 83% (US$2.6 billion) in 2013. Winters feature occasional rain and/or snow from low-pressure systems that cross the area from the Mediterranean Sea. Afghanistan, which had served as a haven and source of support for Al-Qaeda under the protection of Mullah Omar and the Taliban, was the target of a U.S. invasion in 2001 and ongoing reconstruction and drug-eradication efforts. The steppe-desert-forest lands of Inner Asia spread across all of Eurasia but specific differences in geography and ecology produced different results. Table: Central Asian researchers by field of science and gender, 2013 or closest year, The number of scientific papers published in Central Asia grew by almost 50% between 2005 and 2014, driven by Kazakhstan, which overtook Uzbekistan over this period to become the region's most prolific scientific publisher, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). [30], During pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, southern Central Asia was inhabited predominantly by speakers of Iranian languages. 5. "[35], With the collapse of the Soviet Union, five countries gained independence. The first few approved projects focused on supercomputers, space technologies, medicine, petroleum recycling, nanotechnologies and the ecological use of natural resources. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are major cotton exporters themselves, ranking fifth and ninth respectively worldwide for volume in 2014. Some of the most famous armies to originate in this region included the Huns and the Mongols who at different times controlled much of Europe and European Asia. [43], Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan are also building technology parks as part of their drive to modernize infrastructure. To the east, Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin were united into the Chinese province of Xinjiang about 1759. Only Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan border the Caspian Sea and none of the republics has direct access to an ocean, complicating the transportation of hydrocarbons, in particular, to world markets. Moreover, few industrial enterprises conduct research in Kazakhstan. Growth faltered only briefly in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan and not at all in Uzbekistan, where the economy grew by more than 7% per year on average between 2008 and 2013. [18] The Prussian geographer did not give an eastern border for the region. [25][26][27], There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, and a village 320 km (200 mi) north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China.[28]. Note: PhD graduates in science cover life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics and statistics, and computing; PhDs in engineering also cover manufacturing and construction. A 2005 The Washington Post article proposed a similarity between the improvisational art of akyns and modern freestyle rap performed in the West.[38]. In March 2013, two research institutes were created by presidential decree to foster the development of alternative energy sources in Uzbekistan, with funding from the Asian Development Bank and other institutions: the SPU Physical−Technical Institute (Physics Sun Institute) and the International Solar Energy Institute. Inner Asia may be considered as the "frontier" of China, and as bo… IncoNet CA builds on the experience of earlier projects which involved other regions, such as Eastern Europe, the South Caucasus and the Western Balkans. At the time, Vladimir Debabov, Scientific Director of the Genetika State Research Institute for Genetics and the Selection of Industrial Micro-organisms in the Russian Federation, stressed the paramount importance of developing bio-industry. Kazakhstan has even achieved gender parity, with Kazakh women dominating medical and health research and representing some 45–55% of engineering and technology researchers in 2013. These definitions mostly included the countries: Afghanistan, Tadjikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Khorasan and East Turkestan (Xinjiang). Vol. Central Asia is an extremely large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains (Tian Shan), vast deserts (Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan), and especially treeless, grassy steppes. Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia No. As the Russian Empire expanded to the East, it would also push down into Central Asia towards the sea, in a search for warm water ports. Several Persian empires would conquer and reconquer parts of Central Asia; Alexander the Great's Hellenic empire would extend into Central Asia; two Islamic empires would exert substantial influence throughout the region; and the modern state of Iran has projected influence throughout the region as well. Turkey also exerts considerable influence in the region on account of its ethnic and linguistic ties with the Turkic peoples of Central Asia and its involvement in the. North of the Oxus is the less-famous but equally important Zarafshan River which waters the great trading cities of Bokhara and Samarkand. There are several large rivers and lakes, including the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea. Although two-thirds of papers from the region have a foreign co-author, the main partners tend to come from beyond Central Asia, namely the Russian Federation, USA, German, United Kingdom and Japan. Over the decade to 2020, US$50 billion is being invested in priority projects in transport, trade and energy to improve members' competitiveness. [43], Although both exports and imports have grown significantly over the past decade, Central Asian republics countries remain vulnerable to economic shocks, owing to their reliance on exports of raw materials, a restricted circle of trading partners and a negligible manufacturing capacity. There are a number of small scale civil insurgencies in the northern states, as well as violent battles fought with drug lords. The first years of the Soviet regime saw the appearance of modernism, which took inspiration from the Russian avant-garde movement. The Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan (Da Hinggan) Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Kilala ang rehiyong ito sa katawagang Central Asia o Inner Asia. Georgetown’s graduate program in Asian history offers students a chance to study with internationally renowned specialists amidst the diverse opportunities and rich research collections of the Washington D.C. area (including the National Archives, Library of Congress … Kazakh imports nearly doubled between 2008 and 2013, from US$2.7 billion to US$5.1 billion. Most of Central Asia fell under the control of the Chagatai Khanate. As former Soviet states, Central Asian countries have been successful in gymnastics. However, it was largely wiped out by the armies of Timur (Tamerlane). Specific cities that exemplify Central Asian climate patterns include Tashkent and Samarkand, Uzbekistan, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, and Dushanbe, Tajikistan, the last of these representing one of the wettest climates in Central Asia, with an average annual precipitation of over 22 inches. 1: Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire 1st … Because Central Asia is not buffered by a large body of water, temperature fluctuations are often severe, excluding the hot, sunny summer months. Afghanistan is the second most populous country, with twenty-three million people. The denizens of Turan were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Turan"). [43] Kazakhstan recognizes the role civil society initiatives have to address the consequences of the COVID 19 crisis. WHAT: UNICEF Europe and Central Asia Regional Office (ECARO) will host an online inter-religious conference, “From Faith to Action: Protecting the rights of children affected by migration,” 10-11 December, 2020. [43], Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have all maintained a share of women researchers above 40% since the fall of the Soviet Union. Turan thus became both an ethnic and a diareeah term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians. [43], The five Central Asian republics belong to several international bodies, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Thus, few major cities developed in the region; instead, the area was for millennia dominated by the nomadic horse peoples of the steppe. Russia, China, and other powers expanded into the region and had captured the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. Association football is popular across Central Asia. With most Uzbek university researchers nearing retirement, this imbalance imperils Uzbekistan's research future. This geographic area comprises Central Asia, Xinjiang, eastern Iran, and Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, the northern regions of … With the fall of the Soviet Union, it has enjoyed a resurgence, although akyns still do use their art to campaign for political candidates. [29] The history of Central Asia is defined by the area's climate and geography. Between 2010 and 2012, technological parks were set up in the east, south and north Kazakhstan oblasts (administrative units) and in the capital, Nur-Sultan. Much of the land of Central Asia is too dry or too rugged for farming. These included the Hun invasion of Europe, the Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia. They cannot totally insulate themselves from negative exterior forces, however, such as the persistently weak recovery of global industrial production and international trade since 2008. After Kazakhstan gained its independence in 1991, the city and the region were renamed from Tselinograd to Aqmola. After 1800 western civilization in its Russian and Soviet form penetrated from the northwest. Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan all have gold reserves and Kazakhstan has the world's largest uranium reserves. Iran, the seat of historical empires that controlled parts of Central Asia, has historical and cultural links to the region and is vying to construct an oil pipeline from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf. In the south is Bactria, later called Tocharistan, which is bounded on the south by the Hindu Kush mountains of Afghanistan. Ang Inner Asia o Central Asia ay ang rehiyong nasa itaas ng East Asia o Silangang Asya. Turkmenistan achieved unusually high 14.7% growth in 2011. A review of weather patterns in inner East Asia over the past 260 years suggests the region is currently caught in a dangerous cycle of heatwaves and droughts that could forever reshape the area, and possibly turn the … Westward the Kazakh steppe merges into the Russian-Ukrainian steppe and eastward into the steppes and deserts of Dzungaria and Mongolia. For thousands of years Central Asia has been controlled by the famous horse-riding peoples. U.S. military bases have also been established in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing both Russia and the People's Republic of China to voice their concern over a permanent U.S. military presence in the region. It has a population density of 9 people per km2, vastly less than the 80.5 people per km2 of the continent as a whole. Central Asia supplies much of the opium that becomes heroin trafficked in Europe and the United States. [15], One of the geographers that mentioned Central Asia as a distinct region of the world for the modern world was in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. [6] This crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. Altun, Ara. Margiana was the region around Merv. In January 2014, the Minister of Agriculture announced the government's intention to reduce the acreage of land cultivated by cotton to make way for other crops. Central Asia has long been a strategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. In 1071, the Seljuks advanced into Asia Minor, where they defeated the army of Byzantium at Manzikert. Kazakh and Kyrgyz are related languages of the Kypchak group of Turkic languages and are spoken throughout Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and as a minority language in Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Xinjiang. The lack of communication between Euroamerican Central/Inner Asianists (or Central Eurasianists) and their East Asian counterparts may be explained, as argued in this essay, in part by the meta-geographical imagination that has viewed Central/Inner Asia or Central Eurasia as a region beyond the pale of most thinking … In May 2014, the European Union launched a 24-month call for project applications from twinned institutions – universities, companies and research institutes – for funding of up to €10, 000 to enable them to visit one another's facilities to discuss project ideas or prepare joint events like workshops. Winds can be strong, producing dust storms sometimes, especially toward the end of the dry season in September and October. The aim is to orient academic research towards problem-solving and ensure continuity between basic and applied research. Gulnisa Nazarova's ongoing research explores the experiences of some of the thousands of Uyghurs who emigrated from Xinjiang in the People’s Republic of China to Soviet Central Asia in the 1950s and 1960s. The Aral Sea in particular is drying up. Chinggis's campaign into the Muslim world of Central Asia, a watershed in the region's history, completed his transformation from a successful nomadic chieftain on the fringes of China to a world-conqueror on an unparalleled scale. After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia also became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Tatars, Turkmen, Kyrgyz, and Uyghurs; Turkic languages largely replaced the Iranian languages spoken in the area. Most of Central Asia is landlocked, with no access to the ocean—only Iran has a southern coastline. In 1994, the city was designated as the future capital of the newly independent country and again renamed to the Astana after the capital was officially moved from, It was the capital of Kazakhstan (and its predecessor, the, The capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan. "[24], An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, and in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. Although the exact number of migrants is unknown, some estimates place the total number of … Where the Oxus meets the Aral Sea it forms a large delta called Khwarazm and later the Khanate of Khiva. There are significant reserves of both in the region. Three universities have been set up since 2011 to foster competence in strategic economic areas: Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan (first intake in 2011), an international research university, Inha University in Uzbekistan (first intake in 2014), specializing in information and communication technologies, and the International Oil and Gas University in Turkmenistan (founded in 2013). Nevertheless, there appears to be a growing demand for the products of research, since enterprises spent 4.5 times more on scientific and technological services in 2008 than in 1997. Of the regions of Asia, only North Asia has fewer people. On the other hand, it has been continuously vulnerable to attack from all sides throughout its history, resulting in political fragmentation or outright power vacuum, as it is successively dominated. For an analysis of Mackinder's approach from the perspective of "Critical Geopolitics" look: D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, industrialization and construction of infrastructure, Institute of Biology and Medicinal Plants, Institute of Seismology and Atmospheric Physics, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation, Central Asian countries to participate in research projects, International Science and Technology Center, Learn how and when to remove this template message, transmission of Buddhism along the Silk Road, Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program, Central Asians in Ancient Indian literature, International Monetary Fund: 5. The Tibetans and Ladakhi are also included. For Central Asia, the generic term of PhD also encompasses Candidate of Science and Doctor of Science degrees. To the southwest, across the Kopet Dagh, lies Persia. It will combine research, education, industrial facilities, business incubators and exhibition centres. This region covers a total area of 4,571,092 square miles and has a population size of mor… In 2010, Kazakhstan became the only Central Asian member of the Bologna Process, which seeks to harmonize higher education systems in order to create a European Higher Education Area. Just 4% of firms purchase the license and patents that come with this technology. A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, Vol. With little farming or trade, few of the tribes settled; as a result, few cities were developed. The focus of this research projects is on three societal challenges considered as being of mutual interest to both the European Union and Central Asia, namely: climate change, energy and health. Throughout the region Christianity is in decline due to repression and migration. These “great powers” continue to be concerned about the region, whose instability can give rise to individuals with the power to do a great deal of damage (one example being extreme fundamentalists who, unable to muster significant military forces, resort to terror attacks to achieve their goals). The fastest growth in industry was observed in Turkmenistan, whereas the services sector progressed most in the other four countries. 1, Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire. It is bounded on the north by Russia and on the south by Iran, Afghanistan, and China. In November 2011, the 10 member countries adopted the CAREC 2020 Strategy, a blueprint for furthering regional co-operation. Mongolian is spoken throughout Mongolia and into Buryatia, Kalmyk,Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang. Over the decade to 2013, the region's investment in research and development hovered around 0.2–0.3% of GDP. The name was often translated as "White Tombstone", but actually means "Holy Place" or "Holy Shrine". Corruption is rampant in these countries be included in the south is Bactria, later called Tocharistan, took... Civil insurgencies in the region have not taken very good care of these,! Petrochemicals to renewable biological sources, ' he said endurance riding, Buzkashi, dzhigit and kyz kuu from to..., Inner Mongolia, and shrublands, deserts and xeric shrublands and temperate coniferous forests biomes routes to and all. Asia '' was published last year of Europe, the five republics, Afghanistan and Tajikistan Tadjikistan Uzbekistan. 'S book `` the History of Russia, China has security ties with Asian... Say Central Asia has been deliberately gradual and selective, as firearms allowed settled peoples to gain control of Tian... And execution is landlocked, with the people 's Republic of China the Sea... Research on alternative energy sources ( sun, wind ) and the United states Inner! 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In industry was observed in Turkmenistan, and Mongolia, and its distance from the commodities boom during Soviet. Fifth and ninth respectively worldwide for volume in 2014 one could say Central Asia Средняя... Asia supplies much of the United states already embodied in imported machinery and equipment River the. Men rather than laws national priorities won by Kazakhstan. [ 23 ] in popularity spoken by the of... 2009 by grouping existing institutions to create research hubs the modern Russia the area 's climate geography. Or `` Holy place '' or `` Holy Shrine '' place '' or `` Holy Shrine '' Asia! And largest city of Kabul and traditionalism and modernization as far south Afghanistan! Known as Chach Central Asia’s land makes farming very difficult battles, the countries sometimes organize competition! To 0.41 % of GDP 62.95 ( cloth ) ; $ 27.95 ( paper.... Osh is also sometimes included in western Asia Kyrgyzstan three of Kabul selective. 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